Archives for the month of: September, 2013

Research in mice identifies new treatment options for bowel cancer

However, most patients are able to eventually resume their normal activities. Types of Surgery Four different surgeries are used as a colon cancer treatment. A colonoscopic excision involves the use of a colonoscope to remove cancer from the colon during its early stages. The colonoscope allows surgeons to thoroughly examine the patient’s colon to get a precise assessment of the cancer. It can also be used to remove polyps, which is a procedure known as a polypectomy. Another colorectal cancer treatment is known as the local excision, which is used for small cancers in the rectal area. This surgery is generally performed on the anus to remove cancerous tissue in that region. The tissue will then be examined by doctors to determine how far advanced the cancer is. A bowel resection is a procedure in which surgeons remove the part of the bowel that contains the cancer. Tissue near the bowel may also be taken to ensure that all of the cancer has been eliminated. Surgeons will then re-connect the two ends of the bowel. This part of the procedure is called anastomosis. An abdominoperineal resection is sometimes used to treat the more advanced colon cancers that can’t be treated with a small incision. This treatment for colon cancer involves the removal of the anal canal and rectum. This procedure is rarely used, due to new advances that have been in medical technology.

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Colon cancer spotted by blood test

In the mutant mice, the team uncovered a stepwise process of genetic alterations, which drive the development of this type of colon cancer. Some alterations activate genes such a BRAF, making them potentially cancerous. Others disrupt protective proteins such as p53, inactivating their ability to suppress cancer progression. “Understanding the genetic makeup of different colorectal cancer subtypes will guide therapeutic decision making in the future” says Professor Allan Bradley, senior author from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. “Our ability to engineer specific genetic alterations in mice allows us to study the function of cancer genes and to model specific cancer subtypes at an organismal level. Such mouse models are also invaluable for testing anticancer drugs before using them in clinical trials”. The team tested a wide range of existing and candidate drugs for their ability to slow down or prevent growth of mouse colon cancer and human colon cancer cells, finding several highly effective approaches. These were tested individually or in combination with one another to find the most powerful therapies. Mice with the Braf-associated colon cancer had very similar therapeutic responses to those of BRAF-associated cancer cells from patients with colon cancer, highlighting the effectiveness of mice in preclinical cancer research. The team found multiple drugs and drug combinations that were effective against human colon cancer cells. These are promising results for alternative second- or third-line treatments after resistance to the first round of treatment against this occurs. “Our results illustrate the power of combining genomic information with large-scale drug screening to provide new targeted treatment strategies for patients with specific cancer subtypes,” says Dr Ultan McDermott, author from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. More information: Roland Rad, Juan Cadinanos, Lena Rad, et al (2013).

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How To Make A Comic Strip

Yes the prep is nauseating. I am a pewker but this didn’t have that affect on me. I drank loads of liquids and made it through. I also wore a ‘sea band’ to prevent upset stomach. I’m a relatively small person of 130 lbs. The worse part for me was the polop removal , 3 in my case which were pre-cancerous. This test is something I have to have again in 2 years. Yippie. But its worth it. June 11, 2013 at 06:50 | Report abuse | myreply Does this also help anyone with a family history of colon cancer? Early detection and prevention are the best, including a diet with lots of fiber, fresh foods, and low consumption of flesh food/meat. Daily exercise is a must too!

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Both drugs are approved as initial therapies in colon cancer in the U.S., though Avastin is used more often, he said. If we see the same finding in this study, then I think its real, Grothey said, referring to next years follow-up trial. If we dont see this result, then the Fire-3 trial is more or less a fluke. Before I would change my standard of care I would wait for these results. Patients lived about the same amount of time before their disease worsened, 10 months compared to 10.3 months, in the Erbitux and Avastin arms of the trial. Overall response rate, or shrinkage of tumors, the trials main data endpoint, were also the same. Survival Results The survival results emerged more than a year after most patients had stopped taking either drug, as the group that got initial treatment with Erbitux lived a median 28.7 months, compared to 25 months for those taking Avastin. The study only included the roughly 60 percent of colon cancer patients whose tumors have the non-mutated KRAS gene that makes Erbitux more likely to be effective. Outcomes could have been influenced by differing access to therapies once initial treatment was over, Mayos Grothey said. Though he wasnt involved with the trial itself, Grothey will serve as chairman this weekend for a combined advisory board on the study for Erbitux partners Merck, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. (BMY) and Eli Lilly & Co. (LLY) These results are intriguing, but an unexplained positive finding from a secondary endpoint will not influence U.S. practice patterns, Scott Kopetz, an associate professor of gastrointestinal medical oncology at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, said in an e-mail. Switching Treatment About half the patients in each arm of the study switched to the opposite medicine — from Erbitux to Avastin, or vice versa — as a second treatment once their cancer had worsened, said Volker Heinemann, a professor of medical oncology at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and lead author of the study. Full data on the treatment patients got once their cancer had worsened will be presented at the World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer in July, Heinemann said. The results show that doctors who treat patients with the unmutated KRAS gene should choose Erbitux over Avastin, Heinemann said.

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Colon Cancer Survival Has Family Link

People who inherit a mutation in the MUTYH gene have nearly a 100% risk for developing colon cancer at some point in their lifetimes. But it is unknown whether specific histological and molecular genetic features of cancer associated with this genotype influence tumor behavior and survival. To determine whether patients with MUTYH-associated polyposis colorectal cancer had different survival rates than control colorectal cancer patients, Maartje Nielsen, M.D., of the Leiden University Medical Center, and colleagues, conducted a multicenter cohort study in Europe that included 147 patients with MUTYH-associated polyposis colorectal cancer and 272 population-based control patients with colorectal cancer. Control and study group patients were matched for country, stage, age and year at diagnosis, and cancer subsite. The researchers found that survival of patients with MUTYH-associated polyposis colorectal cancer was statistically significantly better than for control patients with colorectal cancer. Their five-year survival rate was 78% compared with 63% for the control group. Survival benefit was higher among patients with stage I and II disease than for those with stage III and IV disease. The researchers offer a speculation about the better survival rate among the patients with MUTYH-associated polyposis colorectal cancer, compared with the control patients: “A compromised base excision repair system could render MUTYH-associated polyposis colorectal cancer more immunogenic than sporadic colorectal cancers, which are characterized predominantly by chromosomal instability.” In an accompanying editorial, Henry T. Lynch, MD, and Stephen J. Lanspa, MD, of Creighton University, hypothesize that the cancer-causing mutations in MUTYH, as well as in the mismatch repair genes predisposing to Lynch syndrome, are the causal factors for their respective survival advantages. Furthermore, they write, “the ultimate understanding of the pathogenetic pathways elicited by these respective mutations may serve as models for studying both survival and increased virulence of hereditary and sporadic colorectal cancers.” Provided by Journal of the National Cancer Institute

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Colorectal cancer survival advantage in MUTYH-associated polyposis

Chan, MD, PhD, who led the study, tells WebMD. The study appears in tomorrow’s Journal of the American Medical Association. “This is reassuring for patients with a family history, but it could also be important for treatment,” says Chan, who is an instructor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. “If we are able to identify the factors associated with family risk and improved prognosis, this could help guide treatment decisions in the future.” Greater Risk, Better Survival As many as one in five colorectal cancer patients have a close family link to the disease, and having a first-degree relative such as a parent, sibling, or child with the cancer is associated with a twofold increase in risk. While it is clear that family history is an important risk factor for developing colorectal cancer, its influence on recurrence and survival are not well understood. In their effort to change this, Chan and colleagues from Harvard Medical School and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute followed 1,087 patients with stage III colon cancer who were treated with surgery followed by chemotherapy. A total of 195 patients (18%) reported a history of colorectal cancer in one or more first-degree relatives. During an average of 5 1/2 years of follow up, 29% patients with a family history of the disease and 38% of patients with no family history either died of their disease or experienced disease recurrence. Patients with a family history were 26% less likely to have their disease recur than patients with no afflicted close family members. Screening Wasn’t a Factor Aggressive colorectal cancer screening is recommended for people with a family history of the disease. The American Cancer Society recommends earlier and more frequent screening for anyone with a first-degree relative who has had the disease, especially if that relative was diagnosed before age 60. Early screening saves lives, but it did not appear to be a factor in the improved survival among patients in this study, because all the patients had the same stage of advanced disease. The patients also had similar treatments, suggesting that genetic influences were the key to better survival. In an editorial accompanying the study, Boris Pasche, MD, PhD, director of the Cancer Genetics Program at the Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, writes that family history “may well become a new prognostic factor for colorectal cancer.” Pasche tells WebMD that the study should spur additional research to identify the genes associated with increased risk and better prognosis. This, in turn, could lead to treatments that target a patient’s specific risk, he says.

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Those who were diagnosed with colon cancer as a result of symptoms were three times more likely to die during the study than the patients diagnosed after colonoscopy screenings, researchers found. “It’s in line with its current use. It shows that colonoscopy appears to be beneficial in reducing deaths in those diagnosed with colorectal cancer,” said Dr. Chyke Doubeni, who studies colonoscopy use but wasn’t involved in the new research. Colon cancer is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in the U.S., according to the government-backed U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), which recommends that people between ages 50 and 75 get screened by colonoscopy every ten years. During a colonoscopy, a doctor uses a long flexible tube equipped with a tiny video camera to see the interior of the colon. According to the study authors, the incidence of colon cancer in the U.S. has dropped by about 6 percent since the first national colonoscopy guidelines were introduced in 2000 – mostly due to doctors catching and removing precancerous polyps during screening. Still, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that about 22 million people are not up-to-date with their colon cancer screenings. For the new study, Dr. Ramzi Amri and colleagues from Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston analyzed data on all people who underwent colon cancer surgery at their hospital from 2004 through 2011. Their goal was to see whether those diagnosed with colon tumors after colonoscopy screenings had better outcomes than patients diagnosed after going to their doctors because they were experiencing symptoms, such as bleeding from the rectum.

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Mailings may up colon cancer screening rates in underserved

During a colonoscopy, a doctor uses a long flexible tube equipped with a tiny video camera to see the interior of the colon. Alternatively, the USPSTF says people in that age group can have a high-sensitivity fecal occult blood test every year, or a sigmoidoscopy – which is similar to a colonoscopy – every five years in addition to fecal occult blood testing every three years. For the new study, Gupta and his colleagues randomly assigned 5,970 uninsured patients in the John Peter Smith Health Network in Fort Worth and Tarrant County, Texas, to one of three groups in January 2011. One group of 3,898 people received usual care, which consisted of doctors asking patients while they were at the clinic for an appointment if they’d like to be screened for colon cancer. People in the other two groups received letters in English and Spanish with information on colon and rectal cancer and an invitation to get a free screening. The participants in the outreach groups also received two automated phone messages, two phone calls from real people and help setting up appointments for screening. Within the outreach group, 479 people were offered colonoscopies and 1,593 people were offered a fecal occult blood test known as a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) that they could complete at home. By February 2012, 12 percent of the usual care group had been screened for colon cancer. That compared to 25 percent in the colonoscopy outreach group and 41 percent in the stool test group. Colonoscopies are usually seen as the most thorough colon cancer screening, but Gupta said the better response in the stool test group may make up for its inferiority. “Clearly (the results) show that outreach works and it raises the possibility that programs offering FIT could have a similar or even better impact than colonoscopy,” he told Reuters Health.

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Most Adults Under 50 Unlikely To Need Colorectal Screening, Study Suggests

Rates are now dropping 2.8 percent per year in men and 2.2 percent per year in women, largely due to an increase in screening, particularly colonoscopy, among individuals ages 50 years and older. Screening can reduce colorectal cancer incidence by detecting and removing polyps before they become cancerous. But recent incidence trends among adults younger than 50 years, for whom routine screening is not recommended, have not been analyzed thoroughly. A previous study did find an increase in incidence from 1973 to 1999 for all races combined, but that study did not include 40 to 49 year-olds, who represent 73 percent of colorectal cancer patients under age 50. In a new analysis, American Cancer Society researchers led by Rebecca L. Siegel, M.P.H., looked at trends in colorectal cancer incidence rates between 1992 and 2005 among young adults (ages 20 to 49) by sex, race/ethnicity, age, stage at diagnosis, and anatomic subsite. The study found that among individuals ages 20 to 49, incidence rates of colorectal cancer increased 1.5 percent per year in men and 1.6 percent per year in women from 1992 to 2005. Among non-Hispanic Whites, rates increased for both men and women in each 10-year age grouping (20-29, 30-39, and 40-49 years) and for every stage of diagnosis. They found the largest annual percent increase in colorectal cancer incidence was in the youngest age group (20-29 years), in whom incidence rates rose by 5.2% per year in men and 5.6% per year in women. They say the rises are due to an increase in left-sided tumors, particularly in the rectum. The researchers address several possibilities for the rise, including rising rates of obesity, which is a major risk factor for colorectal cancer. Dietary factors may also come into play.

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Omega-3 Intake Improves Memory In Young Adults

Bita Moghaddam, project investigator and professor of neuroscience , said: “Before seeing this data, I would have said it was impossible to move young healthy individuals above their cognitive best. We found that members of this population can enhance their working memory performance even further, despite their already being at the top of their cognitive game.” The experts examined healthy young males and females ages 18 to 25 from all ethnicities who heightened their Omega-3 intake with supplements for 6 months. Their progress was recorded through phone calls and outpatient procedures. Before starting off on the supplements, all subjects had their blood samples analyzed and underwent positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, in order to observe how their tissues and organs were functioning. A working memory test, known as “n-back test”, was then given to the participants, in which they were provided a series of letters and numbers. They had to remember what number/letter had been revealed one, two, and three times prior. Moghaddam explained: “What was particularly interesting about the presupplementation n-back test was that it correlated positively with plasma Omega-3. This means that the Omega-3s they were getting from their diet already positively correlated with their working memory.” The subjects completed the same series of outpatient prodecures after they finished taking Lovaza, an Omega-3 supplement approved by the Food and Drug Administatiom, for six months. Results of this last stage, from the working memory test and blood samples, showed an improvement in working memory. “So many of the previous studies have been done with the elderly or people with medical conditions, leaving this unique population of young adults unaddressed,” revealed Matthew Muldoon, associate professor of medicine at Pitt. “But what about our highest-functioning periods? Can we help the brain achieve its full potential by adapting our healthy behaviors in our young adult life? We found that we absolutely can.” Although the main goal of the research was to recognize the effects of Omega-3s on young adults, the scientists also wanted to observe the brain mechanism linked to regulating Omega-3. Prior research on rodents suggested that eliminating Omega-3 from the diet can lower dopamine storage – the neurotransmitter linked to mood and working memory – and reduce density in the striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) – a protein linked to decision making. This made the team believe that cognitive performance was raised by the increase of VMAT2 protein.

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The researchers found that in young adults, adenomas were slightly more prevalent in men than in women and in whites than in blacks. In older adults, the prevalence of adenomas also was greater in men than in women, but greater in blacks than in whites. In addition, the study found that in both younger and older adults, the overall prevalence of left-sided adenomas was higher than right-sided adenomas. Compared with younger adults, older adults had an increased prevalence of adenomas on both sides of the colorectum, but a relatively greater prevalence of right-sided adenomas. Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death after lung cancer. Each U.S. citizen has a 6 percent lifetime risk of colorectal cancer. When colorectal cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, five-year survival rates are about 90 percent; however, less than 40 percent of patients present at an early stage. The study was supported by The John G. Rangos, Sr. Charitable Foundation, The Clayton Fund and the National Institutes of Health. Coauthors were Cheryl J. Pendergrass, Daniel L. Edelstein, Linda M. Hylind, Blaine T.

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human colon

Get Weird News Newsletters: Subscribe Follow: chronic conditions , Anatomical Wonders , Cancer Prevention , Colon Cancer Awareness , Colon Cancer Screening , Colonoscopy , Giant Human Colon , Giant Inflatable Human Colon Union Square , Weird News It takes a lot to make New Yorkers stop and stare, but a giant inflatable human colon smack in the middle of bustling Union Square was cause for a pause. The Rollin’ Colon — a pop-up health exhibit — is sending a message to all New Yorkers: Check your sh*t. “Its hard to ignore the symptoms of colon cancer or Crohns disease when you are literally face-to-face with them, said Catherine Montaldo, CCCF executive director, in a press release. This event is an opportunity to show everyone that screening for colon cancer is important and effective before symptoms develop, said Dr. David Carr-Locke, chief of the Division of Digestive Diseases at Beth Israel Medical Center, in a statement. In partnership with New York’s Beth Israel Hospital, the Colon Cancer Challenge Foundation (CCCF) is hoping to bring awareness to colon cancer prevention by putting it in the public’s eye. Colorectal cancer — also referred to as rectum or colon cancer — is the second leading cancer killer in the United States after lung cancer, according to CCCF. It most often affects adults over 50. Cynthia Martinez, the organizer of ‘The Rollin Colon,’ is a proud colon cancer survivor, who self-diagnosed herself after watching an episode of the Dr. Oz show. “I realized I had all the bad symptoms — the linguine, the pebbles, the diarrhea.

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New Colon Cancer Screening Test in the Works

Martin, MD Oct. 28, 2010 — A new, consumer-friendly test for colon cancer, once approved, could persuade more Americans to undergo screening for the deadly cancer, according to researchers presenting their findings on the test’s effectiveness at a cancer conference in Philadelphia. At the same meeting, other researchers reported that they have new clues about how DNA characteristics can help predict colon cancer risk. The research was presented at the American Association for Cancer Research’s special conference, Colorectal Cancer: Biology to Therapy. Screening for Colon Cancer: Back Story ”One in every 17 of us will have colon cancer in our lifetime,” says David Ahlquist, MD, professor of medicine and a consultant in gastroenterology at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., who presented his findings on the new colon cancer screening test. Although colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death for men and women in the U.S., many adults don’t undergo the screenings once they reach age 50 (or earlier for those with a family history), Ahlquist told a news conference. Estimates of how many adults undergo screening vary, but Ahlquist says probably only 40% adhere to the screening schedule over time. One screening test, the colonoscopy, in which a flexible, lighted tube with a video camera is inserted to examine the colon, requires dietary restriction and preparation of the colon. Patients must often take time off work and need transportation home from the procedure. Catching Colon Cancer: The New Test The new test, a next-generation stool test known as a DNA methylation test, detects tumor-specific alterations or methylations in the DNA in the cells shed into the stool from cancerous or precancerous lesions. The test can be done at home without dietary restrictions or bowel preparation. At the meeting, Ahlquist presented the results of the first clinical evaluation study, which enrolled 1,100 patients.”We were pleased by the results of this first clinical study,” he says. The test found 64% of precancerous tumors that were bigger than a centimeter (less than a half inch) and found 85% of cancers. Ahlquist called the 85% figure ”very high” and adds: “It would be very hard to find a noninvasive approach that could get that range.” The test also found tumors on both sides of the colon, Ahlquist says, a feat that is not always accomplished by colonoscopy. “These results were encouraging,” he says. The detection rate was 87% for cancers in stages I through III, considered the most curable, and 69% percent for stage IV, the most advanced.

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Recent studies have found that serrated polyps share molecular features with a subgroup of colon cancers, leading to the hypothesis that serrated polyps can be precursors of cancer through a hyperplastic polyp to serrated adenoma to cancer sequence. These cancers tend to arise in the proximal colon. Sessile serrated polyps may be an intermediate step between hyperplastic polyp and serrated adenomas. There is currently insufficient understanding of the clinical significance of hyperplastic polyps and sessile serrated polyps to make reliable recommendations to clinicians about how to respond (e.g. when to repeat colonoscopy ) when these lesions are detected. A research article to be published on August 14, 2009 in the World Journal of Gastroenterology addresses this question.The study material was 40 consecutive polyps at least 5 mm in size from the proximal colon, identified in 2001 at a single institution, and interpreted as hyperplastic in 2001 by general pathologists. In 2007 reinterpretation was performed by 3 experts gastrointestinal pathologists, The gastrointestinal (GI) pathologists interpreted 85%, 43% and 30% of the polyps as sessile serrated polyps (sessile serrated adenomas). The overall Kappa was 0.16. When diagnoses were compared in pairs, Kappa values were 0.38 and 0.25 (fair agreement) and 0.14 (slight agreement). The results indicated that many polyps interpreted as hyperplastic in 2001 were considered sessile serrated lesions by GI pathologists in 2007, but there is substantial inter-observer variation amongst GI pathologists. These results point to a problem for clinicians. Not only is the best clinical response to various types of serrated lesions uncertain, but the criteria for pathologic interpretation of these lesions and whether they can be reliably distinguished is still not fully established. Additional work is needed to clarify the pathologic interpretation of these lesions and define the clinical significance of subgroups of serrated colorectal polyps. More information: Khalid O, Radaideh S, Cummings O, O’Brien MJ, Goldblum JR, Rex DK Reinterpretation of histology of proximal colon polyps called hyperplastic in 2001.

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Colorectal Cancer on the Rise in Adults Under 50

Overall, researchers found that 22 percent of overweight and obese people had colon polyps, compared to 19 percent in people of normal weight, and the polyp risk grew with increasing BMI. “The findings suggest that obesity may be having an effect (on cancer development) much earlier than we thought,” said Ashrafian. Most polyps don’t cause any symptoms so they are usually not picked up before routine colonoscopy. During the procedure, the doctor cuts out polyps if there are any to make sure they don’t turn into cancer. In their report, published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology, the authors recommend timely colon cancer screening among overweight and obese people. The U.S. Preventative Services Task Force, a government-funded expert panel, recommends colon cancer screening for people ages 50 to 75 (there are a number of different tests, including a cheap stool test, to choose from). In the UK, screening for colon cancer is offered by the National Health Service from age 60 to 69. The new study points to a need for screening that specifically targets obese people, said Dr. Joseph Anderson from Dartmouth in Hanover, New Hampshire, who was not involved in the study. There are different ways to screen people, and if a person is obese, they are at higher risk and should have a full colonoscopy, he added. A partial colonoscopy, also known as sigmoidoscopy, uses a flexible tube to look at the rectum and lower part of the colon, making it less invasive and uncomfortable than a full colonoscopy procedure. Obese people tend to have adenomas in the upper part of the colon, and sigmoidoscopy doesn’t reach that far, said Anderson, who has written an editorial on this study for a forthcoming issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology. But Dr.

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Heavy people more likely to have colon polyps

Theyve had symptoms for a year or a year and a half before they finally get diagnosed, says researcher Y. Nancy You, MD, a surgeon at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. Colorectal Cancer Overview Tracking Trends in Colon Cancer The study looked at nearly 600,000 colorectal cancer cases reported to a national registry between 1998 and 2007. As expected, cancer was much more common in the older age group. About 89% of the cases were seen in adults over age 50. But while colorectal cancer cases have dropped steadily in adults over 50, they increased by more than 2% each year in younger adults. The increase was highest for rectal cancers, which jumped nearly 4% each year. Colon cancer rates rose nearly 3% per year. To compound the problem, doctors say many people may not suspect cancer when symptoms like bleeding, abdominal pain, or a change in bowel habits strike someone in their 30s or 40s. Most young people, when they have these types of symptoms, they are not thinking that they have cancer. Then they go to their physician and the physician isnt thinking that they have cancer, says Rebecca Siegel, MPH, an epidemiologist with the American Cancer Society in Atlanta. The result is often a delay in diagnosis. The study found that younger adults were more likely than older adults to be diagnosed with late-stage cancers, which are harder to treat.

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People who inherit a mutation in the MUTYH gene have nearly a 100% risk for developing colon cancer at some point in their lifetimes. But it is unknown whether specific histological and molecular genetic features of cancer associated with this genotype influence tumor behavior and survival. To determine whether patients with MUTYH-associated polyposis colorectal cancer had different survival rates than control colorectal cancer patients, Maartje Nielsen, M.D., of the Leiden University Medical Center, and colleagues, conducted a multicenter cohort study in Europe that included 147 patients with MUTYH-associated polyposis colorectal cancer and 272 population-based control patients with colorectal cancer. Control and study group patients were matched for country, stage, age and year at diagnosis, and cancer subsite. The researchers found that survival of patients with MUTYH-associated polyposis colorectal cancer was statistically significantly better than for control patients with colorectal cancer. Their five-year survival rate was 78% compared with 63% for the control group. Survival benefit was higher among patients with stage I and II disease than for those with stage III and IV disease. The researchers offer a speculation about the better survival rate among the patients with MUTYH-associated polyposis colorectal cancer, compared with the control patients: “A compromised base excision repair system could render MUTYH-associated polyposis colorectal cancer more immunogenic than sporadic colorectal cancers, which are characterized predominantly by chromosomal instability.” In an accompanying editorial, Henry T. Lynch, MD, and Stephen J. Lanspa, MD, of Creighton University, hypothesize that the cancer-causing mutations in MUTYH, as well as in the mismatch repair genes predisposing to Lynch syndrome, are the causal factors for their respective survival advantages. Furthermore, they write, “the ultimate understanding of the pathogenetic pathways elicited by these respective mutations may serve as models for studying both survival and increased virulence of hereditary and sporadic colorectal cancers.” Provided by Journal of the National Cancer Institute

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Cancer Survival Rates Vary by Country

“Survival in the USA is high on a global scale but varies quite widely among individual states as well as between blacks and whites within the USA,” he tells WebMD. Cancer Survival by Country Coleman and colleagues drew on data from nearly 2 million cancer patients, ages 15 to 99, whose medical information was entered into 101 population-based cancer registries in 31 countries. The patients had been diagnosed with one of four cancers: breast, colon, rectum, or prostate cancers during the years 1990-1994. They were followed up to 1999, with the researchers comparing five-year survival rates. The highest survival rates were found in the U.S. for breast and prostate cancer , in Japan for colon and rectal cancers in men, and in France for colon and rectal cancers in women, Coleman’s team reports. In Canada and Australia, survival was also high for most cancers. The lowest cancer survival rates for all four cancers were found in Algeria. Cancer Survival: A Closer Look at the U.S. Survival rates varied among the 16 states and six metropolitan areas included in the study. Idaho had the best survival rates for rectal cancer in men and Seattle was highest for rectal cancer in women. Patients in Seattle also had the best survival rates for prostate cancer. For all other cancers studied, patients in Hawaii had the highest survival rates.

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Gluten free lunch

The signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer are subtle if they appear at all. The warning signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer include : Changes in frequency and consistency of bowel movements (persistent constipation or diarrhea, or both) Feeling of not being able to empty the bowel completely Urgency to move the bowels, especially immediately after eating Rectal cramping Rectal bleeding (often misdiagnosed as bleeding hemorrhoids) Dark patches of blood in or on stool Long, thin, “pencil stools” Abdominal discomfort or bloating, especially after eating foods that were normally easy to digest Unexplained fatigue Weight loss Pelvic pain, which usually occurs during later stages of colorectal disease Readers experiencing any of these symptoms should consult their physicians and request a follow-up. If they are 50 or older, or have a family history of colorectal cancer, readers should ask for a screening colonoscopy to rule out colorectal cancer. Neither the reader nor the doctors should assume, based on age alone, that the reader is just experiencing hemorrhoids. After notifying the appropriate physician, the doctor should perform a digital (finger) rectal exam, and should also consider other tests: abdomino-pelvic sonogram, double-contrast barium enema, flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Colonoscopy, either the physical exam where a long flexible tube is inserted in the rectum to examine it and the colon, or virtual colonoscopy, where the procedure is less invasive, are the two definitive tests to determine if colon or rectal cancer is present. Signs and symptoms like persistent abdominal pain, unusual weight loss, or fatigue may be due to other health issues. However, they are also three compelling signs linked to colorectal cancer, and should be investigated as soon as possible. Doctors should also check for bleeding in the digestive tract when patients are diagnosed with anemia. Anemia, or low red blood cells, can indicate digestive tract and intestinal bleeding that a person may not be able to see in stool examinations. According to the latest report on new cancer diagnoses and cancer deaths from the American Cancer Society , released March 31, 2011, the death rates for colorectal cancer continue to decline. However, a trend noticed in a study released in August, 2010 by researchers who examined the data in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer-registry database of the National Cancer Institute shows that from 1984 2005, rectal cancer rates rose just under 4% each year in people under age 40. Colon cancer rates in the same age group did not show a similar rise.

see this website http://www.examiner.com/article/colorectal-cancer-101-what-are-the-signs-and-symptoms-of-colorectal-cancer

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on yahoo http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/172674-treatment

Colon Polyp Recurrence High

24, 2003 — If you’ve had one colon polyp, you’ll likely have another. It’s more evidence that people need regular screenings to prevent colon cancer . Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in men and women, responsible for more than 57,000 deaths in 2001 alone. Colon polyps , which can lead to colon cancer, are found in about 30%-40% of people aged 60 or older — and the risk of polyps increases with age. Yet doctors haven’t understood what factors determine recurrence of polyps. A new study explores this issue, looking at polyp occurrence in 8,865 people, all of whom had one polyp removed between 1989 and 1999. Researchers found that 31% of these people had another polyp by 2001. Among people who underwent colon screening at least nine months after the first polyp (52% of the original study group) — doctors estimated 50% would have yet another polyp within four years. Several other studies have found similar results, writes lead author Marianne Ulcickas Yood, DSc, MPH, an epidemiologist with Yale University School of Medicine in New Haven, Conn. Her study appears in this week’s Archives of Internal Medicine. It points to the need for people to get regular colon cancer screenings, says Yood. The American Cancer Society and other groups advise that if you are over age 50 and have no symptoms of colon polyps or cancer — and have no family history of colon cancer — screening with one of the following tests or combination of tests may help decrease your risk of developing colon cancer. Options include: Having a test for blood in the stool (fecal occult blood test) every year Having a flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years Having a test for blood in the stool every year plus flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years Having a colonoscopy every 10 years Having a double contrast barium enema ) every five years. Colonoscopy is recommended every three to five years if a person has a family history of colon cancer or if polyps have been found in the past.

official website http://www.webmd.com/colorectal-cancer/news/20030224/colon-polyp-recurrence-high