Archives for the month of: February, 2014

Colon Polyps

These cancers arise from the inner lining of the large intestine, also known as the colon. Tumors may also arise from the inner lining of the very last part of the digestive tract, called the rectum. Unfortunately, most colorectal cancers are “silent” tumors. They grow slowly and often do not produce symptoms until they reach a large size. Fortunately, colorectal cancer is preventable, and curable, if detected early. How Does Colorectal Cancer Develop? Colorectal cancer usually begins as a “polyp,” a nonspecific term to describe a growth on the inner surface of the colon. Polyps are often non-cancerous growths but some can develop into cancer. The two most common types of polyps found in the colon and rectum include: Hyperplastic and inflammatory polyps. Usually these polyps do not carry a risk of developing into cancer. However, large hyperplastic polyps, especially on the right side of the colon, are of concern and should be completely removed. Adenomas or adenomatous polyps. Polyps, which, if left alone, could turn into colon cancer. These are considered pre-cancerous. Although most colorectal polyps do not become cancer, virtually all colon and rectal cancers start from these growths.

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27, 2007; 7:44 PM Copyright Harvard Health Publications 2007 What Is It? More Info Colon polyps are growths of tissue inside the large intestine, also called the colon. Some polyps are mushroom-shaped protrusions on the end of a stalk. Others appear as bumps that lie flat against the intestinal wall. There are several types of polyps. Most are noncancerous (benign), but one type, the adenomatous polyp, is associated with changes (called mutations) in the DNA of the lining of the colon. These mutations can progress into colon cancer. The larger the polyp, the greater the chance that it contains cancerous cells. For a polyp larger than 1 inch in diameter, there is a 10% chance it is cancerous. Some people are born with a genetic tendency to develop multiple polyps. Inherited conditions such as familial adenomatous polyposis and Gardner’s syndrome can cause hundreds of polyps to grow in the colon and rectum. Without surgery to remove the affected section of the intestine, it is almost certain that at least one of these polyps will turn into cancer by middle age. These two conditions are rare.

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Gallbladder Polyp Size Can Guide Treatment

(The Merck Manual, 18th Edition 2006:173-74) Incidence and mortality rates for colon cancer have been decreasing steadily for over a decade, most likely due to the increase in screening colonoscopies and the removal of polyps during these procedures. Current guidelines recommend that otherwise healthy people begin screening for colon cancer at age 50. Although many people neglect this opportunity to detect cancer at an early stage, many others are undergoing screening colonoscopy at the advice of their physicians. Because it is not uncommon to discover polyps during screening examinations, and since different types of polyps confer differing levels of cancer riskand possibly because instructions for followup are often conveyed when patients have not fully recovered from sedationmany people are confused about the results of their screenings. A basic understanding of how polyps behave and the guidelines for reexamination will help to clarify when an individual should plan to return to his/her physician. Types of Colon Polyps Adenomatous (neoplastic) polyps: These polyps are of greatest concern, as they are most likely to change from benign to malignant. This process apparently occurs over seven to fifteen years, although it is likely that many adenomatous polyps regress and never become cancerous. Adenomatous polyps are further sub-classified into the following types based upon their microscopic appearance: Tubular adenomas Tubulovillous adenomas Villous adenomas Cancer risk is higher for larger polyps and for those exhibiting more dysplasia; in general, tubular adenomas carry the lowest risk, tubulovillous adenomas carry an intermediate risk, and villous adenomas carry the highest risk. Non-adenomatous (non-neoplastic) polyps: These include hyperplastic polyps, lipomas, juvenile polyps, hamartomas, leiomyomas, and pseudopolyps. Recommendations for Reexamination Following Screening Colonoscopy People who undergo screening colonoscopy should follow their physicians’ advice regarding repeat examination. Certain hereditary conditions and large, difficult-to-remove polyps require more intensive surveillance. However, the following general guidelines apply (assuming no intervening condition demands earlier examination): If no polyps are found on screening colonoscopy, subsequent colonoscopy should take place in ten years Patients who have only hyperplastic polyps removed at initial screening are considered to have normal colonoscopies.

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Therefore, in an attempt to clarify which patients should undergo removal of the gallbladder, which need surveillance, and which require little or no follow-up, Garcea’s group reviewed the case notes from 986 patients seen at their center between 2000 and 2011. More than half were women, and the median age was slightly over 57 years. A total of 69% of the polyps were smaller than 5 mm, 26.2% were 5 to 10 mm, and the remaining few were larger than 10 mm. A single polyp was present in 62%, while more than three were detected in 24.4%. Median follow-up was 39.3 months, but half of the patients received no subsequent surveillance or follow-up. An increase in size was seen in only 6.6% of polyps during the surveillance period, while a decrease was seen in 25.7% and no change occurred in 67.7%. Among patients who underwent cholecystectomy, the most common reasons were persistent pain and polyp size in excess of 10 mm. Following gallbladder removal, only 3.7% turned out to be possibly malignant on histologic evaluation, and only one specimen showed actual malignant changes. The researchers then considered the potential cost-effectiveness of surveillance in patients with these polyps. In the U.S., the overall economic burden associated with gallbladder cancer is $78 million yearly, they calculated. Given the median age of 57 at the time of polyp detection, and a 20-year subsequent life expectancy, ultrasound surveillance every 2 years could carry a price tag of $47,036 each year and $9.4 million over 2 decades. They further determined that biannual surveillance could save 5.4 lives each year, if all potentially neoplastic polyps were assumed to become malignant. And if 30% of patients undergoing surveillance had surgery, as was the case in this cohort, annual costs for surgery would be $253,115, rising to $310,167 when surveillance costs are also included.

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Diaz, who’s expected to sign with a major league team by this weekend, worked out Wednesday at Cardinals camp in Jupiter, Florida. “He’s a player we’ve had interest in for awhile and the next natural step in the process was to put him in front of our people in this setting,” general manager John Mozeliak said Wednesday afternoon. The Yankees, Blue Jays, Mariners, Padres, and Giants are also known to be monitoring the 23-year-old. Rangers aren’t ruling out Nelson Cruz return Rangers GM Jon Daniels said Wednesday that he hasn’t ruled out re-signing outfielder Nelson Cruz. “We’ve touched base every week or so,” Daniels said. “Nellie’s highly regarded here. We have a good relationship with [his agent]. We made our moves [for Prince Fielder and Shin-Soo Choo] and kind of expected him to sign elsewhere. But we’ll see where it goes.” Cruz has struggled to attract offers this winter because of last year’s PED bust and because his free agency is tied to draft pick compensation. The Orioles, Mets, and Mariners have been linked to the 33-year-old slugger in recent weeks, but no progress has been made toward an actual contract agreement. Blue Jays unlikely to sign SP Ervin Santana Jayson Stark of hears from sources that the Blue Jays are unlikely to sign free agent right-hander Ervin Santana or another veteran starter.

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What Is Metastatic Colon Cancer?

The American Cancer Society has noted that living a healthy lifestyle can help lower your risk of colorectal cancer. In a news release on July 8, 2013, the University of Illinois reported, Consuming soy peptide may reduce colon cancer metastasis. More Photos View all 8 photos Researchers at the University of Illinois study who showed that injection of the soy peptide lunasin dramatically reduced colon cancer metastasis in mice, were interested in seeing how making lunasin part of the animals daily diet would affect the spread of the disease. Elvira de Mejia, a University of Illinois professor of food chemistry and food toxicology, has said, In this new study, we find that giving lunasin orally at 20 mg/kg of body weight reduced the number of metastatic tumors by 94 percentwe went from 18 tumors to only one. And that was done using lunasin alone; no other type of therapy was used. In the initial study, injections of lunasin were used together with the chemotherapy drug oxaliplatin, yielding impressive results. There was a sixfold reduction in metastatic tumors to the liver. Vermont Dia, a postdoctoral associate in the de Mejia laboratory, said We learned in that study that lunasin can penetrate the cancer cell, cause cell death, and interact with at least one type of receptor in a cell that is ready to metastasize. Scientists followed this up with this study in which they experimented with oral doses of the peptide. Soy is after all food and the scientists wanted the animals to consume it as a food. The scientists have said that consuming the necessary amount of lunasin in soy foods would be difficult in terms of number of servings per day. However, the scientists feel this would be possible to get enough soy in your diet if food companies began to offer lunasin-enriched soy milk or yogurt. De Mejia has said that chronic daily exposure to lunasin could make an even more significant difference in terms of cancer development and metastasis. There has been evidence that lunasin accumulates in the body tissues, primarily the livers, of animals that have been exposed to chronic exposure to this bioactive component of soy.

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Colorectal Cancer Metastasis Sites

What Is Metastatic Colon Cancer? Last Updated: Nov 16, 2009 | By Julie Boehlke Colon cancer is a type of cancer that originates in the colon and bowel area. When the cancer spreads outside of the colon, it is considered to have metastasized. Colon cancer is highly treatable when it is found early, and is contained or localized. Once it has spread, it can be difficult to treat. Knowing what the signs are, how to get tested and how to treat metastatic colon cancer will ensure prompt diagnosis and care. Metastatic Colon Cancer The colon is an important part of the human body. This is where the waste from food and by products that pass through the body are stored and pushed out of the body. Both the rectum and the colon form the large intestine. The colon is made up of many different types of cells. When the cells begin to clump together, they form cancer.

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These cancers develop when cells acquire genetic mutations that allow the cells to proliferate uncontrollably and indefinitely, evading cell death mechanisms. Cancer cells also have the ability to metatasize–travel from the initial primary tumor throughout the body, forming secondary tumors in other tissues. Colorectal cancer cells most commonly metastasize to a few regions throughout the body, leading to a range of potentially fatal symptoms. Liver Colorectal cancer most commonly metatasizes to the liver, the organ responsible for detoxifying the body. In a 2006 study published in “Cancer Control,” Dr. J. McLoughlin reported that around 50 percent of colorectal cancer patients developed secondary tumors in the liver. Common metastasis to the liver is thought to be due to the path of blood flow from the colon, which facilitates migration of cancer cells from the colon to the liver. Metatasis to the liver can lead to a number of potentially fatal side effects. As a secondary tumor grows within the liver, the neighboring regions of the organ have difficulty functioning. As the liver begins to fail, patients will often experience a loss of appetite and weight loss.

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Weight loss surgery tied to colon cancer risk

In general, treatments may include: Surgery (most often a to destroy cancerous tissue SURGERY Stage 0 colon cancer may be treated by removing the cancer cells, often during a colonoscopy. For stages I, II, and III cancer, more extensive surgery is needed to remove the part of the colon that is cancerous. (See: Colon resection ) There is some debate as to whether patients with stage II colon cancer should receive chemotherapy after surgery. You should discuss this with your oncologist. CHEMOTHERAPY Almost all patients with stage III colon cancer should receive chemotherapy after surgery for approximately 6 – 8 months. The chemotherapy drug 5-fluorouracil has been shown to increase the chance of a cure in certain patients. Chemotherapy is also used to improve symptoms and prolong survival in patients with stage IV colon cancer. Irinotecan, oxaliplatin, capecitabine, and 5-fluorouracil are the three most commonly used drugs. Monoclonal antibodies, including cetuximab (Erbitux), panitumumab (Vectibix), bevacizumab (Avastin), and other drugs have been used alone or in combination with chemotherapy. You may receive just one type, or a combination of these drugs. RADIATION Although radiation therapy is occasionally used in patients with colon cancer, it is usually used in combination with chemotherapy for patients with stage III rectal cancer. For patients with stage IV disease that has spread to the liver, various treatments directed specifically at the liver can be used. This may include: Burning the cancer (ablation) Delivering chemotherapy or radiation directly into the liver Freezing the cancer (cryotherapy)

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‘Keyhole’ Surgery Effective for Colon Cancer

“These findings should not be used to guide decisions made by patients or doctors at all until the results are confirmed by other studies,” said Dr. Jesper Lagergren, the new study’s senior author and a professor at both the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm and King’s College London. Each year more than 100,000 people in the U.S. have surgery to treat obesity. Lagergren and his colleagues point out in their report, published in the Annals of Surgery, that obesity is tied to elevated risks for a number of cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate (see Reuters Health story of November 3, 2011 here: ). Whether surgery to lose weight can affect those risks is uncertain. Two earlier studies, one from the U.S. and the other from Sweden, found that the chances of obesity-related cancers decline after women have weight-loss surgery. But an earlier study from Lagergren’s group found the risks for breast and prostate cancers were unaffected by obesity surgery, and colorectal cancer risk increased. To investigate that finding further, Lagergren’s team collected 29 years’ worth of medical records on more than 77,000 people in Sweden who were diagnosed as obese between 1980 and 2009. About 15,000 of them underwent weight loss surgery. In the surgery group, 70 people developed colorectal cancer – a rate that was 60 percent greater than what would be expected for the larger Swedish population. When the researchers looked only at people who had surgery more than 10 years before the end of the study period, the number of cancer cases was 200 percent greater than the expected risk for the general population. In contrast, 373 people in the no-surgery group developed colorectal cancer, which was 26 percent more than would be expected in the population and that number remained stable over time. A two-fold increased risk for colorectal cancer is not a “negligible risk increase, but it should not be of any major concern for the individual patient since the absolute risk is still low,” Lagergren told Reuters Health in an email. In the U.S., for instance, 40 out of every 100,000 women and roughly 53 out of every 100,000 men develop colorectal cancer each year.

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Patients who had to be switched to open surgery were more likely to have complications, and keyhole surgery wasn’t as successful in rectal cancer , says the study. ‘Keyhole’ Approach The “keyhole” approach uses a few small incisions in the abdomen instead of the one large incision required in open surgery. The “keyholes” let doctors insert a tiny camera and small surgical instruments to perform the operation. The technique — called laparoscopic-assisted surgery — has been used in gallbladder surgery and other operations. It’s been widely adopted for colorectal cancer but hadn’t been tested in large-scale studies, say Pierre Gillou, MD, and colleagues. There have been previous concerns about unusual patterns of cancer spread or recurrence, such as cancer appearing at the keyhole incision sites, say the researchers. A year ago, another study found that keyhole surgery was a viable option for colon cancer patients. That study — published in The New England Journal of Medicine in May 2004 — only included colon cancer patients with early disease that had not spread. Which Patients Had the Longest Hospital Stay? Gillou’s study included 800 British colorectal cancer patients. Keyhole surgery was performed on 484 participants, while 253 patients underwent open surgery.

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Colorectal cancer — symptoms, causes and treatment

Colon cancer signs include: blood in the stool cramps, gas, abdominal pain or other colon problems that persist over a period of time diarrhea or constipation, if this is a change in regular bowel habits and lasts for more than a few weeks a feeling of fatigue or weakness feeling as if the bowel has not emptied all the way after a bowel movement rapid, unexplained weight loss Some people experience no symptoms at all and are completely surprised to learn they have colon cancer. Cancer research indicates that colon cancer occurs when healthy colon cells get altered and grow out of control. Cancer cells begin to form in the lining of the intestines, but may take years to develop into a detectable colon cancer tumor. Precancerous polyps that are either flat or look like mushrooms form sores, called lesions, along the sides of the large intestines. Who is at Risk for Colon Cancer? These are the primary risk factors for colon cancer: being over 50 years old being African American having a family history of colon cancer a low fiber, high fat diet a diet high in red meat and processed lunch meat a lack of regular exercise having diabetes smoking When to See a Doctor for Colon Cancer Symptoms Anyone with concerns about symptom should set an appointment with a doctor, who will order a series of tests. These include blood tests to determine the possible cause of the symptoms, but this will not detect colon cancer. A doctor will also perform a colonoscopy, an uncomfortable procedure where a small camera attached to a tube is used to video monitor the entire colon, and if anything unusual is noticed, tissue samples will be biopsied. A barium contrast-dye enema will then be administered so the colon shows up on X-rays better. It is likely that the doctor will also order a CT scan to get a detailed picture of the inside of the colon. If colon cancer is diagnosed, surgery will be scheduled to remove pieces of the large intestines. The doctor may also recommend a course of radiation and chemotherapy.

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In fact, more than 60 percent of cases of colorectal can be cured completely if they are detected at an early stage. Therefore, initial symptoms should not be ignored. If you have a family history of cancer, you should regularly screen yourself. Otherwise, screening should be initiated soon after the age of 50 years. How is it diagnosed? Colonoscopy is commonly used to detect colon cancers or precancerous polyps/tumours. A thin tube is inserted through the rectal opening. Sigmoidoscopy is another scope examination which is used to detect cancer in the lowest part of the colon. It is similar to colonoscopy but it uses a smaller tube than the one used in colonoscopy. For determining the stage of cancer, a CT scan or MRI scan is taken to check whether the cancer has spread to other organs. What are the treatment options for colorectal cancer Surgery: Cancerous tumours in the colon can be safely removed with surgery. The type of surgery to be performed depends on the size and the location of the tumour. Partial colectomy is a surgical procedure in which a part of the colon or the rectum containing the tumour is taken out along with a surrounding healthy tissue which is reconnected later. Sometimes, a colostomy is performed in which the healthy end of the large intestine is removed. Chemotherapy : It is usually initiated after the colon tumour is surgically removed in order to prevent recurring tumours.

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Colon and Rectal Cancers – Symptoms

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). Familial adenomatous polyposis is caused by mutations in a gene called the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, which normally helps suppress tumor growth. In its defective form, it accelerates cell growth leading to polyps. The APC mutation can be inherited from either parent. People with FAP develop hundreds to thousands of polyps to in the colon. If FAP is left untreated, virtually everyone who inherits this condition develops cancer by age 45. Polyps usually first appear when people are in their mid-teens. FAP also increases the risks for other types of cancers including stomach, thyroid, pancreatic, liver, and small intestine cancers. Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC). Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is also known as Lynch syndrome.About 50 – 80% of people who inherit the abnormal gene develop colon cancer by age 45. HNPCC is caused by mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 genes. People with HNPCC are prone to other cancers, including uterine and ovarian cancers, as well as cancers of the small intestine, liver, urinary tract, and central nervous system. Lifestyle Factors The risks for colon cancer are far higher in industrialized nations than less developed countries. A Western lifestyle, being sedentary, smoking, and having excess weight have all been associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer.

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The colon is sometimes referred to as the large intestine. The last part of the large intestine is the rectum. Colon and rectal cancer, also called colorectal cancer, is the third most common cancer in Canada. The risk of colorectal cancer increases as a person gets older. After 30, the risk at least doubles with each passing decade. Most doctors start screening at age 50. Men appear to be at greater risk for developing colon cancer. Screening is crucial because colorectal cancer responds best to treatment if caught early. Treatment is most effective for people with localized colorectal cancer. People who may be at higher risk for colorectal cancer should speak with their doctor to decide on the best screening schedule for them. The stage of a tumour is usually the best way of knowing its curability. Most cancers are staged or graded according to their size and, above all, the degree to which they have spread to other parts of the body.

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What Causes, Prevents Colon Polyps

If you want even more protection, add a 10-minute walk on sunny days without wearing sunscreen . So suggest the results of the one of the largest and most comprehensive studies to date on factors that raise and lower the risk of colon cancer . In this new report, vitamin D shines — it’s associated with a one-third reduced risk of serious colon polyps that often lead to cancer in men getting at least 645 IUs of this nutrient each day. “That’s what you’ll find in a multivitamin supplement and a small glass of milk,” says lead investigator David A. Lieberman, MD, chief of gastroenterology at the Portland VA Medical Center. “Other vitamins also seem to have a protective effect, but our study suggests a stronger protective effect from vitamin D.” That’s because vitamin D keeps cells from over-proliferating and multiplying too quickly. “Cells in the lining of the colon are constantly turning over and reproducing,” Lieberman tells WebMD. “A drug that could prevent that, theoretically, could prevent cell mutations that can lead to cancer.” A similar protective effect — about one-third reduced risk of these polyps — was noted in men who took a daily aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or naproxen. Just over 4 grams of cereal fiber a day, which is less than one-quarter ounce, also offered the same degree of protection. –> The Value of Vitamin D Taking a multivitamin — most of which contain 400 IUs of vitamin D — was associated with reducing polyp risk by about 25%. These multivitamins also contain adequate amounts of calcium, folate, vitamin E, and selenium, which Lieberman also found to help lower polyp risk, “but not as much as vitamin D,” he says. In order to get the full protective effect of vitamin D — at 645 IU — add a small glass of milk daily to the multivitamin. That doesn’t surprise Michael Holick, MD, PhD, director of the Vitamin D Research Lab at Boston University Medical Center and considered by many to be the nation’s leading authority on vitamin D. He was not involved in Lieberman’s research, which is published in this week’s Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Colon Cancer Awareness Month to Sweep the Nation

Experts said the findings give “reassurance” that an already commonly used test performs well. “FIT testing continues to have very good potential as a screening tool,” said Dr. Elizabeth Liles, of the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research in Portland, Ore. Liles and her colleagues reported their findings in the Feb. 4 issue of the journal Annals of Internal Medicine. Experts currently recommend that people at average risk of colon cancer start getting screened at age 50. And they can choose from several options, including yearly stool tests followed by a colonoscopy if the result is positive, a colonoscopy done every 10 years or sigmoidoscopy every five years. Colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy are both invasive procedures that inspect the interior of the colon, but sigmoidoscopy is less thorough — looking only at the lower portion of the colon. In recent years, more doctors have been using FITs instead of the traditional fecal occult blood test, because they’re better at picking up cancer and they’re easier for people to use. Still, individual studies have had a fairly wide range of findings on the FIT tests’ sensitivity — that is, their likelihood of giving a positive result when a person has colon cancer. The new study gives a clearer idea of how the tests perform on average, according to a colon cancer expert who was not involved in the research. “It gives some very valuable information,” said Dr. Andrew Chan, a gastroenterologist at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. But there are still bigger questions, Chan said.

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Stomach and colorectal cancers may be treatable with existing drug

have adopted FIT, particularly at Kaiser Permanente, Lee, a post-doctoral researcher at the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research in Oakland, Calif., told Adults over the age of 50 who are at normal risk for colon cancer if they havent been screened, they would actually get a FIT test mailed to their home. If they happen to visit a physicians office and they want to get screened, they also have the option of getting a FIT or colonoscopy. For their study, published in the Annals of Internal Medicine, Lee and his team reviewed 19 studies examining eight different types of FITs. Each study included between 80 and 27,860 patients, all with an average age ranging between 45 and 63 years old. Overall, the researchers found that the tests correctly identified the presence of colorectal cancer 79 percent of the time with just one round of testing. On average, a single FIT identified 94 percent of patients who did not have cancers in their rectum or colon. The review found that no single FIT brand performed markedly better than another, and surprisingly, the brands that required two or three stool samples were no more accurate at detecting cancer than brands requiring just one sample. These findings indicate that FITs are much more accurate than another at-home fecal test called the fecal occult blood test (FOBT). Based on previously published research, the sensitivity of FOBTs ranges from 13 percent to 50 percent for the detection of colorectal cancers after a single round of testing. Additionally, Lee noted that FITs require less preparation than FOBTs. Its very cumbersome and not very user friendly, Lee said.

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Advanced colonoscope has wider range of view than

Called JAK inhibitors, the drugs are currently used to treat a cancer-like condition called myelofibrosis. They are also undergoing clinical trials for use as a treatment for leukaemia,lymphoma, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and other conditions. In the journal Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, Matthias Ernst, an associate professor at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research in Parkville, Victoria, and colleagues report how they found JAK inhibitors reduce the growth of inflammation-associated stomach and colorectal cancer. The team has been investigating links between inflammationand cancers of the digestive tract for a while. More recently, they have had some success in unravelling the complex molecular signaling that goes on in inflamed tissue, such as that which occurs in a stomach ulcer or inflammatory bowel disease, and how this might drive cancer development. That work helped them understand the molecules that help cancer cells grow and survive, and to identify the ones that can be targeted with potential anti-cancer drugs. JAK proteins are involved in growth of stomach and colorectal cancer In this new study, they investigated molecules known as JAK proteins, which are involved in the development of cancer in the stomach and bowel. When they tested the effect of drugs that block the JAK proteins known as JAK inhibitors in mouse models of stomach and colorectal cancer, they found they slowed the growth of tumors and killed many of the cancer cells. Thus the study provides the first evidence, in live mice, of several proteins that could serve as valuable targets for treating cancers of the digestive tract. This is significant because JAK inhibitors are already available and have been tested in clinical trials for treating cancer-like blood disorders, as Prof. Ernst explains: The reason this discovery is particularly exciting is clinical trials have already shown that JAK proteins can be safely and successfully inhibited in patients. He adds that they hope this will shorten the time it takes to bring their research to possible clinical trials that may improve the outlook for people with stomach and bowel cancer.

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At-home stool test can effectively detect colon cancer


Colon cancer can be prevented and if more people really understood that, many lives would be saved. March and Dress in Blue Day are invaluable parts of making this happen. With each passing year and the help and dedication of those in our community, we are steps closer to creating a future free of colon cancer.” You can help raise awareness by getting involved. While awareness activities happen all month long, National Dress in Blue Day is held annually on the first Friday of March. On this day, the nation unites in the color blue to raise funds to support the Colon Cancer Alliance’s lifesaving programs. Visit the Colon Cancer Alliance’s March website at to learn more about these and other nationwide efforts. The American Cancer Society estimates nearly 150,000 Americans are diagnosed with colon cancer every year and 50,000 die from this disease. But this cancer is largely preventable through recommended screening and is often beatable when detected and treated in its early stages. Colon Cancer Awareness Month and Dress in Blue Day engage schools, businesses, community groups and individuals to spread this lifesaving knowledge. Materials and resources are available at . Dress in Blue Day began with Anita Mitchell. Ms.

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Survival rates for metastatic colon cancer much improved


This is the conclusion of the latest EUROCARE-5 reports for 1999-2007, covering more than 50 per cent of the adult and 77 per cent of the childhood population of Europe. It says cancer survival still varies widely between European countries, despite major improvements in cancer diagnosis and treatment during the first decade of the 21st Century. It should be borne in mind that the Irish figures pre-dated the implementation of the National Cancer Control Policy. The findings, published in The Lancet Oncology, analysed data from cancer registries covering all or part of 29 countries to compare five-year survival from diagnosis for more than nine million adults diagnosed between 2000 and 2007. The 29 countries were grouped into five regions, with England, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales forming one region, titled the UK and Ireland. Nordic countries (with the exception of Denmark), central European countries such as Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands, and some countries in southern Europe, particularly Italy, Portugal, and Spain, have the best survival for most cancers. Survival for the whole of Europe increased from 78.4 per cent in 1999-2001 to 82.4 per cent in 2005-2007. This increase was steepest in Eastern Europe and the UK and Ireland, so the survival gap between these regions and Europe decreased. Survival in the UK and Ireland was intermediate for rectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, skin melanoma and non-Hodgkins lymphoma, but low for kidney, stomach, ovarian, colon and lung cancers. For most countries, five-year survival for breast cancer (women only) was fairly close to the European mean. Survival of women aged 75 years and older was particularly low in the UK and Ireland, although it had increased steeply since 2005. Kidney cancer survival was lowest for the oldest patients in the UK and Ireland. Survival for lung cancer in the UK and Ireland was much lower than for other regions for all periods, although results for lung cancer in some regions (central and eastern Europe) might be affected by overestimation, according to the study. However, Irish rates were 11.8 per cent compared to the regions rate of 9 per cent. Irish five-year survival rates for prostate cancer at 85.6 per cent were higher than the regions figure of 80. 6 per cent. Five-year survival for kidney cancer in Ireland was 51.8 per cent compared to the region figure of 47.6 per cent and the rate for non-Hodgkins lymphoma at 67 per cent, compared to the regions figure of 57.4 per cent. For stomach cancer, five-year survival, as calculated from the first dataset, was poor, with lowest survival in Eastern Europe and the UK and Ireland.

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Only 8% of patients survived five years with the disease in 1990 comparedwith 30% of people diagnosed with the disease after 2004. The study, published today in the Journal of Clinical Oncology , suggests that new chemotherapy treatments and biological agents, along with improvements in surgery to remove tumors from the liver, have resulted in big gains in survival. The study is the first to examine survival rates for metastatic colorectal cancer in the last 20 years. The authors of the study say median survival is now more than 30 months, comparedwith eight months for patients diagnosed before 1990. The study also compared the effects of surgery and chemotherapy on survival rates. Since 2000, more patients undergo surgery to remove parts of the liver invaded by cancer. They found that liver resection surgery led to increased survival statistics, as did the availability of several new cancer medications beginning in 2004. “. . .The degree and rapidity of the improvement is of a magnitude that is rarely seen in metastatic cancers,” Dr. Scott Kopetz, an assistant professor at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center’s Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology and the study’s lead author, said in a news release. “Many of these patients are not necessarily disease-free, but living with their cancer with a high quality of life.

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Colon Cancer Survival Rate: Racial Gap

21, 2006 — Among people with health insurance, blacks have the lowest colon cancer survival rate, a new study shows. The racial gap may be due to a mix of factors including racial differences in colon cancer screening and treatment, note the researchers. They included Chyke Doubeni, MD, MPH, of the University of Massachusetts’ department of family medicine and community health. They studied data on nearly 14,000 U.S. adults diagnosed with colon cancer or rectal cancer between 1993 and 1998. The group included more than 10,500 whites, nearly 1,500 blacks, 985 Hispanics, and about 900 Asians/Pacific Islanders. All had health insurance through any of six health care systems across the country. Tracking Colon Cancer Survival Rates The patients were followed through December 2003. During that time, 4,024 patients in the study died of colorectal cancer . Blacks were the most likely to die of colorectal cancer. Hispanics and whites tied for second place, followed by Asians/Pacific Islanders. Blacks were more likely to be diagnosed with advanced tumors and less likely than whites to undergo colorectal cancer surgery. Those two factors — tumor stage and treatment — appeared to account for much of the racial gap in survival, but the link between race and survival was “complex,” the researchers write. They note that while the patients were insured, their out-of-pocket medical expenses and ability to get time off from work for doctor’s appointments may have varied. Because colonoscopy has become more common since the 1990s, the data should be updated, Doubeni’s team notes.

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“This testing will give patients, their families and their physicians the information they need to make informed decisions about treatment options, risk factors and a lifetime care plan,” Selby said in a news release. Diagnostic Services Manitoba, responsible for Manitoba’s public laboratory and rural diagnostic imaging services, is now offering these new tests. Genetic testing for breast cancer is also available and further expansion of genetic screening for other forms of cancer, such as melanomas and lung cancer, is being explored, Selby said. Patients who have inherited the Lynch syndrome gene have up to a 60 per cent risk of developing colorectal cancer at some point over the course of their life. Women with Lynch syndrome have up to a 60 per cent risk of developing endometrial cancer over the course of their life. “Detection of colon cancer at its earliest stage means a 90 per cent survival rate,” said Dr. Sri Navaratnam, president and chief executive officer of CancerCare Manitoba. Fact Check Have you found an error, or know of something weve missed in one of our stories? Please use the form below and let us know. * Required In which story did you find the error? * Please post the headline of the story or the title of the video with the error. What was the error? * Please post exactly what was wrong with the story.

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